Braille: writing system that represents spoken language and enables blind/visually-impaired people to achieve literacy.
- grade 1: spelt-out
- grade 2: also includes contractions
methods of reading:
- two-hand scissors
- one-hand unguided
methods of writing:
- slate and stylus
- perkins brailler
- braille notetaker/pda
lack of awareness about braille research leads to a knowledge vacuum:
- stigmatization — “print at any cost”
blindness is a continuum
the population of proficient braille users is heterogeneous
- braille script
- braille orthography
- teaching and learning
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 2004
Visible Braille, Invisible Blindness —Kleege (2006) §
alabama state quarter
“concept of that piece was to have Braille as a kind of invitation to touch, more than anything else”
ann hamilton 199 installation at american pavilion
Disability Studies §
“nothing about us without us”
social media posts about people with disabilities tend to “objectify” them for “inspiring” non-disabled people while ignoring their lived experiences and overlooking ongoing injustice
“being inspired from” vs “learning from”
- medical model vs social model
- custodialism vs self-determination
- exclusion vs integration
- transform the individual vs environment
any person who is diseased, maimed, mutilated or in any way deformed so as to be an unsightly or disgusting object
—Municipal ordinance, Chicago, 1881
“if you have a disability you need a fierce mom for sure”
world wars 1 and 2, polio epidemic
1962: ed roberts, independent living movement
Upon learning that Roberts had a severe disability, one of the UC Berkeley deans famously commented, “We’ve tried cripples before and it didn’t work.”
1972: willowbrook state school
1973: section 504 of the rehabilitation act of 1973
No otherwise qualified handicapped individual in the United States, shall, solely by reason of his handicap, be excluded from the participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving federal financial assistance.
1975: education for all handicapped children act
1977: section 504 sit-ins
1988: “deaf president now”
1990: capitol crawl, ada
note: bookshare. national library service for the blind and physically handicapped.
Central visual acuity of 20/200 or less if the better eye with corrective glasses or central visual acuity of more than 20/200 if there is a visual field defect in which the peripheral field is contracted to such an extent that the widest diameter of the visual field subtends an angular distance no greater than 20 degrees in the better eye.
when vision has deteriorated to the point that, to function capably and efficiently, the individual uses alternative (nonvisual) techniques to accomplish the majority of life’s daily activities. This is true even though there is some residual vision […]
Responses to the blind §
- segregated care (“custodialism”)
- integration (self-determination)
chomsky bad?? said language acquisition innate
pattern recognition and social interactions may be innate, but language acquisition isn’t
stochastic = statistically based (as opposed statistically cringe)
“blindness alone is not sufficient to produce deviant language acquisition” — Mills, 1983. semantic underextension.
Evidence from blindness thus challenges the idea that sensory motor representations play a major role in semantics.
Verbalism: the use of visual vocabulary by people who are blind. Allegedly “disordered” since these words have no sensory basis.
Empty husks of visual meaninglessness.
Development of Braille §
Unified English Braille §
- alphabetic wordsigns
- strong contractions (part and whole words)
- ⠯ and
- ⠿ for
- ⠟ of
- ⠮ the
- ⠾ with
- strong wordsigns
- strong groupsigns
- lower groupsigns
- lower wordsigns
- initial-letter contractions (“dot 5 contractions”)
- final-letter groupsigns
- shortform words
Braille reader population estimates §
APH’s federal quota census
printing house. quota funds to make braille materials.
Statements regarding student literacy, use of appropriate learning media, and students taught in a specific medium cannot be supported using APH registration data.
No clear support for ‘10% braille literacy rate’ stat
- 10% stat for fundraising
- 10% stat to reduce braille accessibility