Shreyas’ Notes

Research on Braille

LING 327

fall, senior year

Braille: writing system that represents spoken language and enables blind/visually-impaired people to achieve literacy.

methods of reading:

methods of writing:

lack of awareness about braille research leads to a knowledge vacuum:

blindness is a continuum

the population of proficient braille users is heterogeneous

braille research:

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 2004

Visible Braille, Invisible Blindness —Kleege (2006) §

Disability Studies §

social media posts about people with disabilities tend to “objectify” them for “inspiring” non-disabled people while ignoring their lived experiences and overlooking ongoing injustice

“being inspired from” vs “learning from”

History §

“if you have a disability you need a fierce mom for sure”

note: bookshare. national library service for the blind and physically handicapped.

Blindness §

Central visual acuity of 20/200 or less if the better eye with corrective glasses or central visual acuity of more than 20/200 if there is a visual field defect in which the peripheral field is contracted to such an extent that the widest diameter of the visual field subtends an angular distance no greater than 20 degrees in the better eye.

when vision has deteriorated to the point that, to function capably and efficiently, the individual uses alternative (nonvisual) techniques to accomplish the majority of life’s daily activities. This is true even though there is some residual vision […]

Responses to the blind §

chomsky bad?? said language acquisition innate

pattern recognition and social interactions may be innate, but language acquisition isn’t

stochastic = statistically based (as opposed statistically cringe)

“blindness alone is not sufficient to produce deviant language acquisition” — Mills, 1983. semantic underextension.

Evidence from blindness thus challenges the idea that sensory motor representations play a major role in semantics.

Verbalism: the use of visual vocabulary by people who are blind. Allegedly “disordered” since these words have no sensory basis.

Empty husks of visual meaninglessness.

Development of Braille §

Unified English Braille §

Braille reader population estimates §

Bola et al §

Our study shows that most sighted adults can learn whole-world braille reading. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that adults with an intact visual system can learn such a complex tactile task, given the right motivation and method.

Bedny & MacSweeney §

Reading Wars §

Millar §

The question whether contractions that occur as different segments of words pose specific difficulties is clearly an important issue.

Engelbretson et al §

Ryles R §